When introducing the structure of the Earth, a diagram is essential to helping students visually understand each part. In this activity, students will label a model of the Earth. Students should include a description of each part in addition to the label and arrow.Map Shows How Humans Migrated Across The Globe
To scaffold this activity for students who need support, provide labels to add to the diagram. To stretch your more advanced students, have them compare the structure of Earth to the structure of another planet in our solar system, like Jupiter. These instructions are completely customizable.
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Oceans and Seas and the Water Cycle
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Learn More. Questions About Remote Learning? Click Here. Structure of the Earth. More options. Start my free trial. Activity Overview When introducing the structure of the Earth, a diagram is essential to helping students visually understand each part.Science Explorer.
Multimedia Gallery. Park Passes. Technical Announcements. Employees in the News. Emergency Management. Survey Manual. Not only do the oceans provide evaporated water to the water cycle, they also allow water to move all around the globe as ocean currents.
Oceans are the storehouses of water nature uses to run the water cycle. The water cycle sounds like it is describing how water moves above, on, and through the Earth But, in fact, much more water is "in storage" for long periods of time than is actually moving through the cycle.
The storehouses for the vast majority of all water on Earth are the oceans. It is estimated that of thecubic miles mi 3 1, cubic kilometers km 3 of the world's water supply, aboutmi 3 1, km 3 is stored in oceans. That is about It is also estimated that the oceans supply about 90 percent of the evaporated water that goes into the water cycle.
The water in the oceans is saline saltwaterbut, what do we mean by "saline water?Chennai items address
In this case, the concentration is the amount by weight of salt in water, as expressed in "parts per million" ppm. Water is saline if it has a concentration of more than 1, ppm of dissolved salts; ocean water contains about 35, ppm of salt. Of course, nothing involving the water cycle is really permanent, even the amount of water in the oceans. Over the "short term" of hundreds of years the oceans' volumes don't change much.
But the amount of water in the oceans does change over the long term. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower, which allowed humans to cross over to North America from Asia at the now underwater Bering Strait. During colder climatic periods more ice caps and glaciers form, and enough of the global water supply accumulates as ice to lessen the amounts in other parts of the water cycle.
The reverse is true during warm periods. During the last ice age glaciers covered almost one-third of Earth's land mass, with the result being that the oceans were about feet meters lower than today. During the last global "warm spell," aboutyears ago, the seas were about 18 feet 5. About three million years ago the oceans could have been up to feet 50 meters higher.
Of course the oceans are always in movement. The moon influences daily tides, which make the beach a more interesting place to go. Tides vary greatly around the world, and in some places can be quite dramatic. The Bay of Fundy has maximum tides of up to 53 feet 16 meters during certain times of the year Bay of Fundy Com.
If you have ever been seasick we hope notthen you know how the ocean is never still. You might think that the water in the oceans moves around because of waves, which are driven by winds. But, actually, there are currents and "rivers" in the oceans that move massive amounts of water around the world.Some moon rocks have coarse intergrown crystals composed of plagioclase feldspar, hornblende, and olivine.
These moon rock samples are most similar to Earth rock samples of Which igneous rock, when weathered, could produce sediment composed of the minerals potassium feldspar, quartz, and amphibole? The photograph below shows actual crystal sizes in a light-colored igneous rock that contains several minerals, including potassium feldspar, quartz, and biotite mica. The diagram represents a geological cross-section. In which location is a geologist most likely to find a rock composed of intergrown crystals?Bts reaction to you cutting yourself
The graph represents the percentage of each mineral found in a sample of igneous rock. What mineral is represented by letter X on the graph? The photograph shows the intergrown crystals of a pegmatite rock. Which characteristic provides the best evidence that the pegmatite solidified underground?
The table shows the physical properties of nine minerals. Which mineral is commonly found in granite? Biotite mica and muscovite mica have different chemical compositions. Compared to the agma from which biotite mica forms, the magma from which muscovite mica forms is usually The diagram shows a surface and a cross-sectional view of a portion of Earth 15 km from a mountain range.
Which characteristic of the granite boulder would furnish the greatest amount of information about the environment in which the granite solidified? Base your answer to the question on the cross-section below. Rock units are labeled The line between A and A' indicates a conformity.Geojson query
Which characteristic of the granite intrusion provides the most evidence that it solidified deep underground? Base your answer on the geological cross-section. The large cone-shaped mountain on Earth's surface is a volcano. Letters A, B, and C represent certain rocks. Rock B is most likely which type of igneous rock?
Base your answer to the question on the map.
The triangle represents Mt. Hekla, a volcano in Iceland.The material is full of wild and outlandish claims, and has attracted little interest outside conspiracist circles; most, if not all, of the documents are generally assumed to be forgeries.
Geological history of Earth
The Tibetan diagram was allegedly obtained during a German expedition to Tibet in the s. The two diagrams, together with two Russian versions, were appended to a report that was submitted to the Soviet authorities on 10 January This organization was founded in July and changed its name in to Forschungs- und Lehrgemeinschaft das Ahnenerbe Ancestral Heritage Research and Teaching Community.
The 13th Dalai Lama is said to have received him in Lhasa in January The Soviet authorities executed Blumkin in because he had visited Leon Trotsky in exile. According to one of the documents, however, he was executed because he had divulged information obtained in Tibet to the Germans. Click image to enlarge. The black-and-white version of the German diagram is said to have been in circulation longer than the colour version.
It differs from the colour version in several respects: some of the captions are at a different level in relation to the drawing; two sentences are missing about the polar passages being hidden by ice ; the drawing is the opposite way up in relation to the text; and the top right corner shows signs of ageing. The table below gives the translation of the Tibetan, German and Russian captions.
The Tibetan has been transliterated and translated by David Reiglewho writes:. It is obviously written in comparatively recent Tibetan. For example, it gives what is apparently the name Australia in Tibetan transliteration: o so kro li ya. It also refers to positive electricity, pho glogand negative electricity, mo glog.
In older writings, glog means lightning. The text on this diagram is obviously a blockprint. It is not handwritten. You can tell because it is slightly off center in relation to the red picture background, and it is dark like it should be in some places and too light in other places. This means that enough copies of this diagram were needed to warrant the carving of a woodblock from which to print them.
The table gives the translation of the individual Tibetan words the numbering of the captions refers to the numbers in the diagram below the table. How the words hang together in the longer phrases especially 2, 4, and 10 is somewhat unclear; they read more like cryptic notes.
The captions could not have been written by simply looking up words in a dictionary; a good command of Tibetan was required. Diagram of the electromagnetic structure of the outer and inner earth. Fusion with the electric south pole; through the Australian [southern? Die Passage wird durch das Eis der Arktis verdeckt. The passage is concealed by the Arctic ice.
The passage is concealed by the ice at the south pole. Es vollzieht sich ein magnetischer Austausch zwischen dem Nordpol und dem Sudpol. A magnetic exchange takes place between the north pole and the south pole.
And the electric currents of water and air together with the electric exchange take place via the south pole. Here occurs magnetic exchange with the North Pole, [flow] water-air electric currents, [take place] processes of electric exchange through the South Pole.
Rotation is clockwise. The Tibetan diagram is of dubious provenance and it is impossible to confirm its authenticity. The captions in the different versions are similar but not exact matches.The geological history of Earth follows the major events in Earth's past based on the geological time scalea system of chronological measurement based on the study of the planet's rock layers stratigraphy. Earth formed about 4. Earth was initially molten due to extreme volcanism and frequent collisions with other bodies.
Eventually, the outer layer of the planet cooled to form a solid crust when water began accumulating in the atmosphere. The Moon formed soon afterwards, possibly as a result of the impact of a planetoid with the Earth. Outgassing and volcanic activity produced the primordial atmosphere. Condensing water vaporaugmented by ice delivered from cometsproduced the oceans. However, more recently, in Augustresearchers reported that sufficient water to fill the oceans may have always been on the Earth since the beginning of the planet's formation.
As the surface continually reshaped itself over hundreds of millions of years, continents formed and broke apart. They migrated across the surfaceoccasionally combining to form a supercontinent. It extends from 4. It includes three eons, the Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic. Major volcanic events altering the Earth's environment and causing extinctions may have occurred 10 times in the past 3 billion years.
During Hadean time 4. The Moon formed soon afterwards, possibly as a result of the impact of a large planetoid with the Earth. Some of the material survived to form an orbiting moon. More recent potassium isotopic studies suggest that the Moon was formed by a smaller, high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant impact cleaving off a significant portion of the Earth. During this time, the Earth's crust cooled enough that rocks and continental plates began to form.
Some scientists think because the Earth was hotter, that plate tectonic activity was more vigorous than it is today, resulting in a much greater rate of recycling of crustal material. This may have prevented cratonisation and continent formation until the mantle cooled and convection slowed down. Others argue that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle is too buoyant to subduct and that the lack of Archean rocks is a function of erosion and subsequent tectonic events.
In contrast to the ProterozoicArchean rocks are often heavily metamorphized deep-water sediments, such as graywackesmudstonesvolcanic sediments and banded iron formations. Greenstone belts are typical Archean formations, consisting of alternating high- and low-grade metamorphic rocks. The high-grade rocks were derived from volcanic island arcswhile the low-grade metamorphic rocks represent deep-sea sediments eroded from the neighboring island rocks and deposited in a forearc basin.
In short, greenstone belts represent sutured protocontinents. The Earth's magnetic field was established 3. The solar wind flux was about times the value of the modern Sunso the presence of the magnetic field helped prevent the planet's atmosphere from being stripped away, which is what probably happened to the atmosphere of Mars.Core, mantle, and crust are divisions based on composition. The crust makes up less than 1 percent of Earth by mass, consisting of oceanic crust and continental crust is often more felsic rock.
Finally, the core is mostly iron metal. Lithosphere and asthenosphere are divisions based on mechanical properties. The lithosphere is composed of both the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves as a brittle, rigid solid. The asthenosphere is partially molten upper mantle material that behaves plastically and can flow.
Lab 2: Drawing Connections
The crust is very thin, relative to the radius of the planet. There are two very different types of crust, each with its own distinctive physical and chemical properties. Oceanic crust is composed of magma that erupts on the seafloor to create basalt lava flows or cools deeper down to create the intrusive igneous rock gabbro.
Sediments, primarily muds and the shells of tiny sea creatures, coat the seafloor.
Sediment is thickest near the shore where it comes off the continents in rivers and on wind currents. Continental crust is made up of many different types of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. The average composition is granite, which is much less dense than the mafic igneous rocks of the oceanic crust.
Because it is thick and has relatively low density, continental crust rises higher on the mantle than oceanic crust, which sinks into the mantle to form basins. The lithosphere is the outermost mechanical layer, which behaves as a brittle, rigid solid. The lithosphere is about kilometers thick.
The definition of the lithosphere is based on how earth materials behave, so it includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which are both brittle.
Since it is rigid and brittle, when stresses act on the lithosphere, it breaks. This is what we experience as an earthquake. The two most important things about the mantle are: 1 it is made of solid rock, and 2 it is hot. Scientists know that the mantle is made of rock based on evidence from seismic waves, heat flow, and meteorites. The properties fit the ultramafic rock peridotite, which is made of the iron- and magnesium-rich silicate minerals. Scientists know that the mantle is extremely hot because of the heat flowing outward from it and because of its physical properties.
Heat flows in two different ways within the Earth: conduction and convection. Conduction is defined as the heat transfer that occurs through rapid collisions of atoms, which can only happen if the material is solid. Heat flows from warmer to cooler places until all are the same temperature. The mantle is hot mostly because of heat conducted from the core.
Convection is the process of a material that can move and flow may develop convection currents. Convection in the mantle is the same as convection in a pot of water on a stove.Sync peloton to garmin connect
As the core heats the bottom layer of mantle material, particles move more rapidly, decreasing its density and causing it to rise. The rising material begins the convection current. When the warm material reaches the surface, it spreads horizontally. The material cools because it is no longer near the core. It eventually becomes cool and dense enough to sink back down into the mantle. At the bottom of the mantle, the material travels horizontally and is heated by the core.
It reaches the location where warm mantle material rises, and the mantle convection cell is complete.The toaster is an annoying one because it can be expensive. I considered two options: adding a second toaster to my kitchen, or buying a four-slice model with good separation between "their" side and mine. Because I don't have the space for two, I opted for a four-slice one.
I get the two slots on the left, while everyone else uses the right. Because gluten is responsible for the textures we're used to in baked goods, you may find that the things you bake with gluten-free flours just don't measure up. I've even found mixes that end up dry and crumbly. Something that really helps is using xanthan gum or guar gum. They help bind the food together and have a better texture. I don't bake a tremendous amount, but for everything I have baked with gluten-free flour, a multi-purpose blend with a little xanthan gum has worked really well.
Some people do prefer different types of flours for different recipes, though. Lots of advice is out there, online and in cook books, from people who really know what they're doing. You can find a lot of gluten-free mixes on store shelves, and some of them are really good. However, some can come out quite dry. I've had good luck with adding an extra egg or a bit more liquid than what's called for. It takes some experimentation and might not always work, but it's worth it when you end up with something that's a true replacement for a food you miss.
When you're on a special diet and also have an illness that can prevent you from certain basic tasks, such as cooking from scratch or grocery shopping, it becomes important to keep simple options on hand. I make sure to keep a few frozen, gluten-free meals in my freezer for when I need them. When I haven't had them, I've regretted it. I've also found some gluten-free wraps and tortillas that I like, and they're great for making a quick meal out of leftovers or sandwich fixings.
To keep from getting into a bad situation, I try to keep something safe and filling in my purse and car. A small bag of peanuts, almonds, or dried fruit are good options. This is a medical diet that may not offer benefits to those who don't have celiac disease or a gluten sensitivity.
You can learn more about these things here:Be sure to explore both Jane and Teri's sites for more information to help you be successfully gluten free. There was an error. Thank you,for signing up. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.
Tibetan diagram of the hollow earth?
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